In the fourth quarter of , manufacturing increased by 2. Leading sectors included mechanical engineering, fashion, pharmaceutics, food and wine. During , permanent employment contracts increased by Tourism is the most significant industry in central Florence. From April to October, tourists outnumber local population.
Tickets to the Uffizi and Accademia museums are regularly sold out and large groups regularly fill the basilicas of Santa Croce and Santa Maria Novella , both of which charge for entry.
However, I wanted tot know more about the country that gave rise to notables such as Chopin, Curie and Copernicus. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. Great Synagogue. Welcome back. The region produces 44 DOC wines. The Teatro della Pergola , located in the centre of the city on the eponymous street, is an opera house built in the 17th century.
Tickets for The Uffizi and Accademia can be purchased online prior to visiting. Studies by Euromonitor International have concluded that cultural and history-oriented tourism is generating significantly increased spending throughout Europe. Florence is believed to have the greatest concentration of art in proportion to its size in the world. In , Florence had 20, hotel rooms in facilities. Tourism brings revenue to Florence, but it creates certain problems.
Some tourists are less than respectful of the city's cultural heritage, according to Nardella. In June , he instituted a programme of spraying church steps with water to prevent tourists from using such areas as picnic spots. While he values the benefits of tourism, there has been "an increase among those who sit down on church steps, eat their food and leave rubbish strewn on them," he explained. Food and wine have long been an important staple of the economy. The Chianti region is just south of the city, and its Sangiovese grapes figure prominently not only in its Chianti Classico wines but also in many of the more recently developed Supertuscan blends.
The celebrated Chianti Rufina district, geographically and historically separated from the main Chianti region, is also few kilometres east of Florence. Florence was the birthplace of High Renaissance art, which lasted from — While Medieval art focused on basic story telling of the Bible, Renaissance art focused on naturalism and human emotion. Religion was important, but with this new age came the humanization   of religious figures in art, such as Expulsion from the Garden of Eden , Ecce Homo Bosch, s , and Madonna Della Seggiola ; People of this age began to understand themselves as human beings, which reflected in art.
Their works, together with those of many other generations of artists, are gathered in the several museums of the town: the Uffizi Gallery, the Palatina gallery with the paintings of the "Golden Ages",  the Bargello with the sculptures of the Renaissance, the museum of San Marco with Fra Angelico 's works, the Academy, the chapels of the Medicis  Buonarroti's house with the sculptures of Michelangelo, the following museums: Bardini, Horne, Stibbert, Romano, Corsini, The Gallery of Modern Art, the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo , the museum of Silverware and the museum of Precious Stones.
In the archaeological museum includes documents of Etruscan civilisation. Florentine architects such as Filippo Brunelleschi — and Leon Battista Alberti — were among the fathers of both Renaissance and Neoclassical architecture. The cathedral, topped by Brunelleschi's dome, dominates the Florentine skyline.
The Florentines decided to start building it — late in the 13th century, without a design for the dome. The project proposed by Brunelleschi in the 14th century was the largest ever built at the time, and the first major dome built in Europe since the two great domes of Roman times — the Pantheon in Rome, and Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
The dome of Santa Maria del Fiore remains the largest brick construction of its kind in the world. The two buildings incorporate in their decoration the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. In recent years, most of the important works of art from the two buildings — and from the nearby Giotto's Campanile , have been removed and replaced by copies.
The originals are now housed in the Museum dell'Opera del Duomo, just to the east of the Cathedral. Picture galleries in Florence include the Uffizi and the Pitti Palace. Two superb collections of sculpture are in the Bargello and the Museum of the Works of the Duomo. They are filled with the creations of Donatello, Verrochio, Desiderio da Settignano, Michelangelo and others. The Galleria dell'Accademia has Michelangelo's David — perhaps the best-known work of art anywhere, plus the unfinished statues of the slaves Michelangelo created for the tomb of Pope Julius II.
There is also a collection of works by the modern sculptor, Marino Marini , in a museum named after him. The Strozzi Palace is the site of special exhibits. Florentine fiorentino , spoken by inhabitants of Florence and its environs, is a Tuscan dialect and the immediate parent language to modern Italian. Although its vocabulary and pronunciation are largely identical to standard Italian, differences do exist. The Vocabolario del fiorentino contemporaneo Dictionary of Modern Florentine reveals lexical distinctions from all walks of life. Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio pioneered the use of the vernacular  instead of the Latin used for most literary works at the time.
Despite Latin being the main language of the courts and the Church in the Middle Ages, writers such as Dante Alighieri  and many others used their own language, the Florentine vernacular descended from Latin, in composing their greatest works. The oldest literary pieces written in Florentine go as far back as the 13th century.
Florence's literature fully blossomed in the 14th century, when not only Dante with his Divine Comedy — and Petrarch, but also poets such as Guido Cavalcanti and Lapo Gianni composed their most important works. He is first guided by the Roman poet Virgil , whose non-Christian beliefs damned him to Hell. Later on he is joined by Beatrice , who guides him through Heaven.
In the 14th century, Petrarch  and Giovanni Boccaccio  led the literary scene in Florence after Dante's death in Petrarch was an all-rounder writer, author and poet, but was particularly known for his Canzoniere , or the Book of Songs, where he conveyed his unremitting love for Laura. All of this is written in a series of distinct novellas. These principles became known as Machiavellianism. Florence became a musical centre during the Middle Ages and music and the performing arts remain an important part of its culture.
The growth of Northern Italian Cities in the s likely contributed to its increased prominence. During the Renaissance, there were four kinds of musical patronage in the city with respect to both sacred and secular music: state, corporate, church, and private. It was here that the Florentine Camerata convened in the midth century and experimented with setting tales of Greek mythology to music and staging the result—in other words, the first operas, setting the wheels in motion not just for the further development of the operatic form, but for later developments of separate "classical" forms such as the symphony and concerto.
After the year , Italian trends prevailed across Europe, by it was the primary musical language. The genre of the Madrigal , born in Italy, gained popularity in Britain and elsewhere. Several Italian cities were "larger on the musical map than their real-size for power suggested.
Florence, was once such city which experienced a fantastic period in the early seventeenth Century of musico-theatrical innovation, including the beginning and flourishing of opera. Opera was invented in Florence in the late 16th century when Jacobo Peri's Dafne an opera in the style of monody , was premiered. Opera spread from Florence throughout Italy and eventually Europe.
Vocal Music in the choir setting was also taking new identity at this time. Composers and musicians who have lived in Florence include Piero Strozzi — after , Giulio Caccini — and Mike Francis — Giulio Caccini's book Le Nuove Musiche was significant in performance practice technique instruction at the time. Florence has been a setting for numerous works of fiction and movies, including the novels and associated films, such as Light in the Piazza , Calmi Cuori Appassionati , Hannibal , A Room with a View , Tea with Mussolini , Virgin Territory and Inferno.
Florence has appeared as a location in video games such as Assassins Creed II. Florentine food grows out of a tradition of peasant eating rather than rarefied high cooking. The majority of dishes are based on meat. The whole animal was traditionally eaten; tripe trippa and stomach lampredotto were once regularly on the menu and still are sold at the food carts stationed throughout the city. The typically saltless Tuscan bread, obtained with natural levain frequently features in Florentine courses, especially in its soups, ribollita and pappa al pomodoro , or in the salad of bread and fresh vegetables called panzanella that is served in summer.
The bistecca alla fiorentina is a large the customary size should weigh around 1. Most of these courses are generally served with local olive oil , also a prime product enjoying a worldwide reputation. Research institutes and university departments are located within the Florence area and within two campuses at Polo di Novoli and Polo Scientifico di Sesto Fiorentino  as well as in the Research Area of Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche.
Florence has been an important scientific centre for centuries, notably during the Renaissance with scientists such as Leonardo da Vinci. Florentines were one of the driving forces behind the Age of Discovery. Florentine bankers financed Henry the Navigator and the Portuguese explorers who pioneered the route around Africa to India and the Far East. It was a map drawn by the Florentine Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli , a student of Brunelleschi, that Christopher Columbus used to sell his "enterprise" to the Spanish monarchs, and which he used on his first voyage.
Mercator's "Projection" is a refined version of Toscanelli's — taking into account the Americas, of which the Florentine was, obviously, ignorant. Galileo and other scientists pioneered the study of optics, ballistics, astronomy, anatomy, and so on. Pico della Mirandola, Leonardo Bruni, Machiavelli, and many others laid the groundwork for our understanding of science. By the year Florence had become a centre of textile production in Europe.
Many of the rich families in Renaissance Florence were major purchasers of locally produced fine clothing, and the specialists of fashion in the economy and culture of Florence during that period is often underestimated. Other major players in the fashion industry such as Prada and Chanel have large offices and stores in Florence or its outskirts. Florence's main upscale shopping street is Via de' Tornabuoni , where major luxury fashion houses and jewellery labels, such as Armani and Bulgari , have their elegant boutiques. Via del Parione and Via Roma are other streets that are also well known for their high-end fashion stores.
During the day of Easter, a cart, which the Florentines call the Brindellone and which is led by four white oxen, is taken to the Piazza del Duomo between the Baptistery of St. The cart is connected by a rope to the interior of the church. Near the cart there is a model of a dove, which, according to legend, is a symbol of good luck for the city: at the end of the Easter mass, the dove emerges from the nave of the Duomo and ignites the fireworks on the cart. Calcio Storico Fiorentino "Historic Florentine Football " , sometimes called Calcio in costume , is a traditional sport, regarded as a forerunner of soccer, though the actual gameplay most closely resembles rugby.
The event originates from the Middle Ages , when the most important Florentine nobles amused themselves playing while wearing bright costumes. The most important match was played on 17 February , during the siege of Florence. That day Papal troops besieged the city while the Florentines, with contempt of the enemies, decided to play the game notwithstanding the situation.
The game is played in the Piazza di Santa Croce. A temporary arena is constructed, with bleachers and a sand-covered playing field. A series of matches are held between four teams representing each quartiere quarter of Florence during late June and early July. They play their games at the Stadio Artemio Franchi , which holds 47, The female squad of ACF Fiorentina have won the women's association football Italian Championship of the —17 season. The city is home of the Centro Tecnico Federale di Coverciano , in Coverciano, Florence , the main training ground of the Italian national team , and the technical department of the Italian Football Federation.
Since Florence is also represented in Eccellenza, the top tier of rugby union league system in Italy, by I Medicei, which is a club established in by the merging of the senior squads of I Cavalieri of Prato and Firenze Rugby I Medicei won the Serie A Championship in —17 and were promoted to Eccellenza for the —18 season. In , over 50, students were enrolled at the university. Several American universities host a campus in Florence. Over 8, American students are enrolled for study in Florence. Mobike , a Chinese dockless bike sharing company, has been operating in Florence since July of As of , the company operates 4, bikes in Florence.
The users scan the QR code on the bike using the Mobike app, and end the ride by parking curbside. Since Mobike is a dock-less bike-sharing system, it does not provide stations, therefore the bikes can be left almost anywhere. The centre of Florence is closed to through-traffic, although buses, taxis and residents with appropriate permits are allowed in. Cars without permits are allowed to enter after 7. The rules shift during the tourist-filled summers, putting more restrictions on where one can get in and out. Individual tickets, or a pass called Carta Agile with multiple rides, should be purchased in advance and are available at local tobacconists, bars and newspaper stalls and must be validated once on board.
These tickets may be used on ATAF and Li-nea buses, Tramvia and second-class local trains only within city railway stations. Train tickets must be validated before boarding. The main bus station is next to Santa Maria Novella railway station. Trenitalia runs trains between the railway stations within the city, and to other destinations around Italy and Europe. There are two other important stations: Campo di Marte and Rifredi.
In an effort to reduce air pollution and car traffic in the city, a multi-line tram network called Tramvia is under construction. The first line began operation on 14 February and connects Florence's primary intercity railway station Santa Maria Novella with the southwestern suburb of Scandicci. This line is 7.
The construction of a second line began on 5 November , construction was stopped due to contractors' difficulties and restarted in with the new line opening on February 11 This second line connects Florence's airport with the city centre. A third line from Santa Maria Novella to the Careggi area, where the most important hospitals of Florence are located is also under construction. The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Firenze, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 59 min. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4.
It is located in Piazza della Stazione , near the Fortezza da Basso a masterpiece of the military Renaissance architecture  and the Viali di Circonvallazione , and in front of the Basilica of Santa Maria Novella 's apse from which it takes its name. A new high-speed rail station is under construction and is contracted to be operational by The Florence Airport , Peretola, is one of two main airports in the Tuscany region though it is not widely used by popular airlines.
Florence is twinned with: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Capital and most populous city of the Italian region of Tuscany. For other uses, see Florence disambiguation , Florentin disambiguation , Florentine disambiguation , and Firenze disambiguation. Comune in Tuscany, Italy. A collage of Florence showing the Galleria degli Uffizi top left , followed by the Palazzo Pitti , a sunset view of the city and the Fountain of Neptune in the Piazza della Signoria.
Coat of arms. Location of Florence. Main articles: History of Florence and Timeline of Florence. Historical affiliations. Main articles: Republic of Florence and Italian Renaissance. See also: List of mayors of Florence. The 5 administrative boroughs of the whole comune of Florence. Main article: Architecture of Florence. See also: List of churches in Florence and Theatres in Florence. See also: Squares of Florence. Main article: Art in Florence. See also: Guilds of Florence. Main article: Florentine dialect.
See also: Tuscan language. Main article: Music of Florence. See also: Music of Tuscany. Main article: Italian fashion. See also: Fashion designers of Florence and Polimoda. See also: Calcio Fiorentino. See also: Trams in Florence. Main article: Trams in Florence. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy. See also: Category:People from Florence. Italy portal. Retrieved 16 March Retrieved 22 January Robertson Smith , L. Akron, Ohio: The Werner Company, p. Renaissance Florence. New York: Wiley.
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Presses de l'Universite du Quebec. Retrieved 5 May Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 11 June Alen tourism-review. Retrieved 1 July The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 August The Western Heritage. Art Through the Ages. Boston: Clark Baxtor. Retrieved 27 September Archived from the original on 24 November Archived from the original on 18 February Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 14 March Retrieved 25 March Archived from the original on 27 July Hanning, Barbara Russano, J.
Concise History of Western Music. New York: W. Norton, A History of Western Music. Kassell, Richard. A History of Music in Western Culture. Combined Volume. Retrieved 20 August Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 18 March Archived from the original on 7 August Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 22 September Lodging in Vernazza with excellent sea views?? Lodging in Vernazza, Italy - lost in translation? Lodging Location. Lodging location help needed. Lodging location in Monterosso al Mare? Lodging near airport.
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